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According to Globocan 2012, there were 14.1 million cancer cases, 8.2 million cancer deaths, and 32.6 million people living with cancer (within 5 years of diagnosis), with a known incidence of 1.1 million in 2015. However, this estimate is conservative, since the real interest rate is at least 1.5-2 times higher than reported in the literature. Such is the lack of hospital-based and population-based cancer registries in India. India’s age-standardized cancer incidence, estimated at 150-200 per 100,000 population, is higher than in Africa and on par with China.

• Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge is a common symptom of all gynecologic cancers except vulvar cancer.

• Early satiety, bloating, and abdominal or back pain are common symptoms unique to ovarian cancer.

• Abdominal pain is common for ovarian and uterine cancer.

• Frequent or urgent urination and constipation are common symptoms of ovarian, cervical and vaginal cancer.

• Itching, pain or tenderness of the vulva, and changes in vulvar color or skin, such as a rash or warts, are seen in vulvar cancer.

What can be done to reduce the risk?

I. HPV vaccine: Cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted virus. The HPV vaccination protects against this HPV. The HPV vaccination is recommended for girls aged 11 to 12, but can be given from the age of 9 years. HPV vaccination is also recommended for all women up to the age of 26. If vaccination is started before age 15, a two-dose schedule is recommended, with doses given 6 to 12 months apart. Three doses of vaccine are required for people starting the series after the age of 15. A critical aspect of HPV vaccination is that it prevents new HPV infections but does not treat existing infections. For this reason, the HPV vaccine works best when given before HPV exposure.

II. Screening is when an exam or test is used to look for a disease before any symptoms appear. On the other hand, diagnostic tests are used when a person has symptoms. Cancer screening is effective when it can detect the disease early, which leads to more effective treatment. Pap Test Of all gynecologic cancers, only cervical cancer has a screening test, also known as a Pap test. The Pap test helps prevent cervical cancer by finding precancerous changes in the cervix that can progress to cervical cancer if not treated appropriately. HPV test – a test called HPV test looks for HPV infection, which is a common cause of cervical cancer. It can screen women as young as 30 for cervical cancer.

III. Recognize the warning signs: Because there is no easy, reliable way to screen for gynecologic cancers other than cervical cancer, it’s especially important to recognize the warning signs and what you can do to reduce your risk.

IV Talk to the doctor: If you’re at increased risk, it’s important to learn about a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Based on this, the doctor can recommend genetic counseling and testing. It is helpful for a small percentage of women who have a family history of these cancers.

types of treatment

Gynecological cancers can be treated in one or more ways. It depends on the type of cancer and how far it has spread. Treatment modalities can include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Women with gynecologic cancer often need more than one type of treatment.

In surgery, surgeons perform procedures to cut out cancerous tissue with large margins during surgery.

Hysterectomy: A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus and cervix. Sometimes the fallopian tubes and ovaries are also removed. In addition, the doctor may remove pelvic lymph nodes near the uterus to determine if or where the cancer has spread. The extent of the surgery depends on how much cancer is present. A hysterectomy is usually done for cervical cancer that is stage IA2 and higher.

Hysterectomies can be performed as:

?Open: In open surgery, an incision is made in the abdomen. This exposes the organs for the surgeon to access. The uterus and cervix are removed through the abdominal incision.

?Laparoscopic: Tubes are inserted into small incisions. Images from the laparoscope are displayed on a special monitor. Healing and recovery time with laparoscopic surgery is generally faster than with open surgery.

?Robotic Assisted: Robotic arms are inserted through small incisions. This allows for a greater range of motion than a doctor’s hand.

A hysterectomy can also be performed through the vagina. A vaginal approach does not require an external incision. The vagina is held open by special instruments. The uterus and cervix are then removed through the vagina. When a laparoscope is used for a vaginal hysterectomy, a pencil-thin endoscope is inserted near the navel to gain access to the uterus and cervix.

In general, vaginal surgeries can be performed for lower-stage cancer. Abdominal hysterectomies are performed for later stages.

trachelectomy: Trachelectomy (or cervicectomy) is a procedure to remove the cervix in women with stage 1A2 to 2 cancer. It can be performed to preserve fertility in young women who plan to have children after treatment. Like a hysterectomy, a trachelectomy can be performed through the abdomen or vagina using the above methods. The amount of tissue removed from around the cervix depends on the extent of the cancer.

Trachelectomy is not considered standard treatment and is not widely available. In some cases, the surgical staging performed during this procedure reveals more cancer than originally thought. If this happens, prior consent and consent to a hysterectomy may be required.

Women who become pregnant after this procedure have a significantly increased risk of premature birth or miscarriage. A cesarean section is also required after a trachelectomy.

Pelvic extension: If the cancer has spread beyond the cervix to nearby organs, more extensive surgery is required. These include the vagina, bladder, rectum, or lower part of the colon. If the bladder, rectum, and/or part of the colon is removed, additional surgery is required to store and remove waste with a urostomy and/or colostomy. A vagina can be reconstructed from other body tissues.

Dissection of the pelvic lymph nodes: Cancer can spread to the lymph nodes located in the pelvic area outside the uterus. Once there, it can travel to other parts of the body via the lymphatic system. Therefore, during surgery, some or all of the lymph nodes suspected of being cancerous are removed and examined under a microscope.

Chemotherapy:Drugs are used to shrink or kill the cancer cells. The drugs can be pills or intravenous drugs given into veins, or sometimes both.

radiation: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to treat cervical cancer cells. Radiation therapy machines are massive and can make you nervous when you first see them. The device can be fixed in one position or rotate around your body to deliver treatment from different directions. The machine never touches you.

Before your first treatment, your radiation therapist will explain what you will see and hear.

brachytherapy:It is a radiation therapy treatment technique used to control cancer in multiple sites. Its name derives from two terms, “brachy” meaning short and “therapy” meaning treatment. In this modality, the radiation source is placed very close to the diseased region, damaging cancer cells and destroying their ability to multiply. It offers superior accuracy, compliance, and localization because a physician can place the source close to the tumor.

Which treatment is right for the patient?

In order to choose the right treatment, you need to discuss with the cancer doctor (oncologist) the treatment options that are available for your cancer type and stage. The oncologist will be able to explain the risks and benefits of each treatment and its side effects.

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